Water is an essential component in life as air. One cannot imagine any life form without water. Our Earth is blessed with sufficient water to take care of life in the present and also for future generations.
But there is a question that, are we ensuring that the future generation has access to clean and pure water to drink?
The answer to this question is a NO and a YES at the same time. NO, because the release of human and industrial waste is increasing is the primary cause of water pollution in the world.
YES, because we have invented some of the best water purifying machines to eliminate the impurities, dirt, bacteria and other components that ironically we are responsible for introducing in the first place.
Types of water
Water is classified as soft or hard based on the level of dissolved solids in water. Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) is regarded as the degree of hardness and is measured in units of Parts Per Million (PPM) or Milligrams per Litre (mg/L).
1 ppm = 1 mg/L
Water with TDS value stays between 150-300 ppm is considered as soft water. Water with TDS value higher than 500 ppm is considered as hard or contaminated water.
Hard water are underground water, drawn from bore wells, or supplied from Tankers. Hard water may contain fluoride, arsenic, other heavy metals.
Soft water are river water, lakes, rain harvesting, or supplied by the municipality.
Types of water purifiers
There are many water purifiers available in the market for household use. Each water purifier type address a specific need such as the type of water is hard of soft, contamination level in your area water. At first you need to know what type of water available in your area, contamination level for that knows what type of water purifier is suitable. Popular water brands manufacturing a
combination of various water purifying technologies, from that you can choose a perfect one. These are
Gravity Based Water Purifier
RO Water Purifier
In the RO water purifier, water is pushed through the RO membrane using high-pressure pump and forces water to cross the RO membrane. RO water purifier removes all invisible impurities that make water hard, salty such as arsenic, sodium.
UV Water Purifier
UV water purifier uses ultraviolet rays to deactivate microorganisms, a pathogen that causes many water-borne diseases. UV water purifier does not help to make soft water from hard water, it just puts effort to kill microorganisms and pathogens.
UF Water Purifier
UF water purifier uses a hollow fiber membrane. The time when water passes through this fiber membrane, suspended solids, other impurities are retained in fiber. UF can not kill pathogens or microorganisms. It is good for public supply water in which dissolved salts are very low. UF effective only when it use with other water purification technologies. UF can work without electricity and does not use any chemicals.
Activated Carbon Water Purifier
Activated carbon water purifier made by charcoal granules, absorbs pesticides and herbicides. Activated Carbon water purifier works without electricity. Activated carbon water filter works by removing chemicals in water when passing through carbon granules and improves the taste of water and removes bad smell.
Gravity Based Purifiers
These types of filters or purifiers are simplest to use and are the most basic water purification. These filters generally comprise of sediment or sediment + activated carbon filters that can remove large and un-dissolved impurities like mud and sand along with some chemicals and microorganisms. Tap/Faucet Filters are very small in size and can be directly fitted on taps.
Information to know before buying a water purifier
When to choose RO water purifier?
Choose RO water purifier if the water contains dissolved solids like fluoride, arsenic, lead which causes serious health problems. To know that, the best way to test your home water is in laboratories. Search for nearest laboratories in Google by “water testing laboratories in + your city name”. For instance, search some well-known water testing laboratory in Mumbai. Depending on the water test report, if the water contains fluoride, arsenic, lead more than suggest a range, you should go for RO water purifier.
When to choose UV water purifier
If water contains waterborne diseases causing bacteria, viruses and other pathogens, go for the UV water purifier. If water contains dissolved solids like arsenic, fluoride, lead along with the contaminants bacteria and viruses etc you must prefer the RO + UV water purifier.
When to choose Gravity Based Water Purifier
If you don’t have installation feasibility for RO, UV water purifiers like running water, optimum water pressure, electricity or if you are frequently reallocating home to home and you don’t have time to make water purifier installation by a technician.
Most important topic if your budget is limited to 4000 rupees.
If you are coming under above situation and you have hard water at home, it’s better to go for gravity based water purifier
Which purifier have to choose?
RO technology has become synonymous with water purifiers and you must have heard a lot of people referring to water purifier as RO is the best.
Because of this, when we talk about buying a water purifier most people saya that RO water purifiers should be purchased by default without considering the facts like the source of water and TDS level of input water.
Main Components of RO Water Purifier
In the first stage of purification, the input water is filtered by using a pre-sediment filter. Pre-sediment filter not only removes fine and coarse particulate impurities and dirt but also improves the life of the RO/UF membrane resulting in a lower cost of maintenance. If the purifier does not include this as a standard feature while buying, then it can be added separately as well.
Activated Carbon Pre-filter:
Activated carbon pre-filter can remove chlorine and organic impurities like harmful pesticides from the water. Activated carbon pre-filter also can adsorbs bad odor and taste-causing organic compounds from water.
Water is fed into the RO membrane at high pressure by using an in-built water pump. RO membrane can remove all the hardness, dissolved salts, pesticides, and heavy metals like lead, arsenic, and mercury. It also removes microbial contaminants like viruses, bacteria, protozoa, and cysts. The UF membrane also works like the RO membrane but it cannot remove the dissolved solids. Some purifiers use both RO and a UF membrane, the output water from both the membranes are together to control the TDS level of purified water.
TDS controller is used to control the TDS level of the output water. RO process not only removes dirt and impurities but also removes essential minerals like Calcium & Magnesium. TDS controller retains adequate quantities of essential minerals in the purified water by adjusting the ratio of water from RO membrane (low TDS) and UF membrane (normal TDS) when finally mixes up.
UV filter has a high-intensity UV bulb which is used to kill or inactivate any virus, bacteria, and parasites to deliver safe water.
Carbon Post-filter acts as a polisher and increases the taste of purified water. It also removes any foul smell from water.
This stores the purified water for later use. Be ensured that the storage tank is made of food-grade, non-toxic material. Some of the high-end water purifiers now feature a stainless steel water storage tank. You should also check the capacity of the storage tank before buying it.
Most of the RO water purifiers feature with basic display for purifier on/off, a tank full, etc. Some advanced purifiers also have fault alert, membrane change, UV fail, TDS level indicator, purity indicator, etc.
Reducing and Reusing RO Waste Water
You should not use an RO water purifier if the TDS level of the input water is below 500 mg/L and the water does not contain any harmful heavy metals like lead, arsenic, and mercury. In such a case, using a UV+UF water purifier can be more appropriate. Save water by not using RO water purifiers if RO purification is not necessary for your home.
An average RO purifier wastes about 3 liters of water for every 1 liter of purified water. This means only 25% of water is purified and 75% of water comes out as waste.
Factors to consider while buying water purifiers
You must have an idea about the nature of impurities in the water. You have idea also which water purifier to choose to tackle the kind of impurities. You should always conduct the test of the water source at your house before deciding the type of water purifier to choose.
- Do the TDS evaluation test to know the amount of TDS in water.
- If you live in an area inhabited by industries, it is better to conduct a chemical test of the water source to calculate the level of industrial pollutants.
- If in doubt, you can always choose the best, i.e. the RO + UV + UF water filters. However, remember these filters are comparatively higher price as compared to the other water filters.
- Your budget plays a very important role to choose the kind of water purifier you choose. While determining the budget, you should also consider the cost of maintenance and replacement of filters.
The price of Basic RO or UV water purifier starts from Rs 6,000, it will go up to Rs 30,000. But if your budget is low, you can choose a Chemical-based, gravity water purifier. The best example is the Pureit. They will do all the particular job very well but if water at your home is hard, then you cannot use a gravity-based filter. An alternative way is to buy soft-water outside and use a gravity-based water purifier.
Must See : Best Water Purifier In India
This buying guide is to make your job of purchasing your favorite water purifier easy. We have touched upon all the nature of water filtration technologies available in the market nowadays.
The quality of source water plays an important part to choose your water purifier. Choose the right one and make the lives of your family better. You will find a lot of good brands available in the market. The most common and popular brands of water purifiers are now available in India are Kent RO, Pureit, Bluestar, LivPure, LG, and Aquaguard.
Compare these water purifiers and choose the one which is suitable for your family
Frequently Asked Questions About Water Purifier
How to choose water purifier considering TDS level?
If the water in your home is hard and contains high TDS, then go for a water purifier that uses RO + UV technologies.
If the water in your home is hard and TDS levels are low then, RO water purifiers are suitable.
Which TDS is best for drinking water?
According to the BIS, the ideal TDS for drinking water is below 300mg/L and the maximum limit is 600mg/L. It is recommended that people with kidney problems have to drink pure water having a TDS level below 100 mg/L for better recovery.
Is water purifier worth buying?
Water filter is definitely worth buying. Even though you live in an area where water is supposedly safe to drink, still you should purchase one for you. Even though the water is safe to drink in your area. Water purification is a process of eliminating contamination to make water clean, safe and healthy.
Which water purifier is good for health?
It is totally safe and healthy for us when water filters through Reverse Osmosis(RO) purifier. It can remove dust, chemicals, heavy metals, and bacteria from the water. It maintains the minerals in the water so that the quality of the water is very good.
How long does a water filter last?
The water filter itself can last quite long but the cartridges have a lifespan of six to twelve months depending on how you use. And the tanks have a lifespan of three to ten years depending on its size.
Do I need to change the water filter every 6 months?
The truth is most people don’t even know they need to change their filter or not. Experts suggest changing your refrigerator water filter every 3-6 months. You’ll live if you only change it annually, but your taste buds will thank you for changing it more often